Biology: History, Main Branches and Basic Principles


The word biology comes from the Greek words /bios/ that means /life/ and /logos/ that means /study/ and is outlined because the science of life and living organisms. Associate in Nursing organism could be a living entity consisting of 1 cell e.g. bacteria, or many cells e.g. animals, plants and fungi.

Aspects of life science vary from the study of molecular mechanisms in cells, to the classification and behavior of organisms, however species evolve and interaction between ecosystems.

Biology typically overlaps with alternative sciences; for instance, organic chemistry and pharmacological medicine with biology, chemistry, and medicine; physical science with biology and physics; stratigraphy with biology and geography; biological science with biology and organology. Social sciences like geographic, philosophy, scientific discipline and social science may move with biology, for instance, in administration of biological resources, biological process biology, biology, biological process scientific discipline and ethics.

A Short History of Biology

A Short History of Biology,

Origin of the Term “Biology”

Before the term biology was custom-made, alternative terms existed that represented the study of plants and animals. For example, the term explanation was wont to make a case for animals, plants fungi and alternative lifeforms in their natural atmosphere.

Furthermore, it absolutely was data-based instead of Associate in nursing experimental field of study. Hence, an individual World Health Organization would study explanation is termed as a natural historiographer or a naturalist. Alternative terms that came before biology enclosed theological system and physics.

The term “Biology”, within the trendy sense, was introduced through the works of Michael Christoph Hanow in 1766. However, it absolutely was introduced severally four additional times through the works of Thomas Beddoes (1799), Karl Friedrich Burdach (1800), Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus (1802) and Jean-Baptiste naturalist (1802).

Four principles unify trendy biology, per the book “Managing Science” (Springer big apple, 2010):

1. Cell doctrine is that the principle that each one living things are product of elementary units referred to as cells, and every one cells come back from antecedent cells.

2. Sequence theory is that the principle that each one living things have DNA, molecules that code the structures and functions of cells and acquire passed to offspring.

3. Physiological condition is that the principle that each one living things maintain a state of balance that permits organisms to survive in their atmosphere.

4. Evolution is that the principle that describes however all living things will amendment to own traits that alter them to survive higher in their environments. These traits result from random mutations within the organism’s genes that are “selected” via a method referred to as survival. Throughout survival, organisms that have traits better-suited for his or her atmosphere have higher rates of survival, then pass those traits to their offspring

Major Branches of Biology

1: Botany


Plant science is the investigation of organic entities in the realm Plantae, also called plants. The word plant science comes from the descriptor botanic, which thus comes from the Ancient Greek word botany alluding to plants, grasses, and fields. Herbal science additionally has other, more explicit implications; it can allude to the science of a particular kind of plants (e.g., the herbal science of blooming plants) or to the vegetation of a specific region (e.g., the plant science of the rainforest). One who examines organic science is known as a botanist.

2: Zoology


Zoology, or creature science, is the field of science that includes the investigation of creatures. The word zoology comes from the Greek words zōion, signifying “creature”, and logos, signifying “the investigation of”. It incorporates all parts of logical information about creatures, as early stage advancement, development, conduct, biological dissemination, and grouping. Zoology is broken into numerous branches on the grounds that there are such countless various approaches to consider animals; it is additionally broken into branches dependent on which animals are being contemplated.

3: Microbiology


Microbiology is the investigation of minute living beings, like microscopic organisms, growths, and protists. It likewise incorporates the investigation of infections, which are not actually delegated living life forms yet contain hereditary material. Microbiology research envelops all parts of these microorganisms like their conduct, advancement, nature, organic chemistry, and physiology, alongside the pathology of sicknesses that they cause.

Main Branches Of Biology

Some of the most branches of biology are in short mentioned below:

1.  Taxonomy:

it’s the science of identification, language and classification of organisms.

2.  Morphology:

it’s the study of external type, size, shape, color, structure and relative position of varied living organ of living beings.

3.  Anatomy:

it’s the study of internal structure which may be discovered with unaided eye once dissection.

4.  Histology:

it’s the study of tissue organization and structure as discovered through microscope.

5.  Cytology:

it’s the study of type and structure of cells as well as the behavior of nucleus and alternative organelles.

6.  Cell Biology:

it’s the study of morphological, structure, organic chemistry, physiological, genetic, biological process, pathological and biological process aspects of cell and its elements.

7.  Molecular Biology:

it’s the study of the character, chemistry organization, synthesis operating and interaction of bio-molecules that cause and management varied activities of the matter.

8.  Physiology:

it’s the study of various varieties of body functions and processes.

9.  Embryology:

it’s the study of fertilization, growth, division and differentiation of the cell into embryo or early development of living beings before the attainment of structure and size of the offspring.

10.  Ecology:

it’s the study of living organisms is relevancy alternative organism and their atmosphere.

11.  Genetics:

it’s the study of inheritance of characters or heredity and variations. Heredity is that the study of expression and transmission of traits from folks to offspring.

12.  Eugenics:

it’s the science that deals with factors associated with improvement or impairment of race, particularly that of kith and kin.

13.  Evolution:

It studies the origin of life in addition as new varieties of organism from the previous ones by modifications involving genetic changes and variations.

14.  Paleontology:

It deals with the study of fossils or remains and impressions of past organisms gift within the rocks of various ages.

15.  Exobiology:

it’s the branch of scientific inquiry managing the chance of life within the space.

16.  Virology:

it’s the study of viruses all told their aspects.

Basic Principles of Biology

The basis of biology as it exists today is based on five basic principles.These are cell theory, genetic theory, evolution, homeostasis, and the laws of thermodynamics.

Cell Theory: All living organisms are made up of cells.Cells are the basic unit of life.

Genetic Theory: Traits are inherited through genetic transmission.Genes are located on chromosomes and are composed of DNA.

Evolution: Any genetic change in a population inherited from several generations.These changes can be large or small, obvious or not.

Homeostasis: The ability to keep the internal environment constant in response to environmental changes.

Thermodynamics: Energy is constant, and energy conversion is not completely effective.


All living organisms, notwithstanding their singularity, have sure biological, chemical, and physical characteristics in common. All, as an example, are composed of basic units referred to as cells and of an equivalent chemical substances, which, once analyzed, exhibit noteworthy similarities, even in such disparate organisms as bacterium and humans. Moreover, since the action of any organism is set by method the style} within which its cells move and since all cells move in a lot of an equivalent way, the fundamental functioning of all organisms is additionally.

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