On the Famous Scientists website, we’ve assembled an random list of the most well-known biologists and contributors to genetics, fitness, and medicine, grouped by surname.
The list of biologists is Below
Oswald Avery 1877 – 1955.
The Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment showed that DNA transmits heredity orders across successive generations of species – it holds the chemical code of life.
James Black 1924 – 2010.
Beta-blockers for coronary disease and histamine antagonists for stomach ulcers have revolutionised drug design.
Elizabeth Blackwell 1821 – 1910.
She was the first woman in the United States to receive a medical degree and the founder of the country’s first women’s medical school.
Linda Buck Born 1947.
How our sense of smell functions was co-discovered: humans have about 350 different forms of odour receptor cells that transmit signals directly through the olfactory bulb of the brain.
Santiago Ramón y Cajal 1852 – 1934.
The neuron doctrine, which states that neurons act as biochemically distinct cells rather than a network of interconnected cells, was shown by the founder of modern neuroscience.
Rachel Carson 1907 – 1964.
Her book Silent Spring, a pioneer in twentieth-century environmentalism, prompted a rethinking of the impact of chemicals like DDT on the atmosphere, resulting in prohibitions and severe restrictions.
George Washington Carver c.1860 – 1943.
To stop land degradation, the United States’ agricultural economy was strengthened by encouraging nitrogen-producing peanuts as an alternative crop to cotton.
Erwin Chargaff 1905 – 2002.
The laws of Chargaff opened the way for the structure of DNA to be uncovered.
Jacques Cousteau 1910 – 1997.
Oscar-winning underwater entrepreneur who patented the SCUBA diving breathe-on-demand valve and popularised marine biology through many epic television shows.
Francis Crick 1916 – 2004.
DNA’s structure and replication mechanism were co-discovered; the Sequence Hypothesis and the Central Dogma were established; and DNA’s triplet code was discovered to regulate the production of proteins from amino acids.
Marie Curie 1867 – 1934.
Co-discovered the chemical elements radium and polonium; made several groundbreaking contributions to the science of radioactive elements; and conducted the first experiments on the use of radiation to treat tumours.
Charles Darwin 1809 – 1882.
Authored On the Origin of Species, one of history’s most popular novels, in which he described and supported the principle of evolution through natural selection.
John Eccles 1903 – 1997.
Identified how signals are sent through nerve cells in animals, concluding that all excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms are chemical rather than electrical in nature.
Empedocles c. 490 BC – c 430 BC.
Aristotle’s four elements, as well as an ancient philosophy of natural selection and mass conservation.
Ronald Fisher 1890 – 1962.
Invented the experimental design, established the mathematical principle of variation, and unified natural selection with Mendel’s inheritance law, thereby establishing the modern field of population genetics.
Alexander Fleming 1881 – 1955.
It was discovered that using antiseptic agents to heal cuts and diseases resulted in more deaths than if no action was taken. Penicillin was discovered, and the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria was expected.
Howard Florey 1898 – 1968.
Penicillin was developed by Howard Florey and his research team from a scientific curiosity into a powerful antibiotic – a life-saving miracle that has saved millions of lives.
Rosalind Franklin 1920 – 1958.
Many of the experimental evidence used to determine the structure of DNA was provided by him, and he discovered that DNA can occur in two ways.
Galen 129 – c. 216.
He started his career as a gladiator’s physician and developed a connection between diet and health. For 1,500 years, Galen’s erroneous philosophy dominated Western and Arab medicine.
Jane Goodall Born 1934.
The discovery that chimps had comparable social habits to humans, as well as the ability to make tools and search for meat, was a watershed moment in chimp behaviour.
Stephen Jay Gould 1941 – 2002.
Created the punctuated equilibrium hypothesis, which notes that evolution is made up of long periods of stability interspersed with shorter periods of rapid transition. An award-winning author and science popularizer.
Alister Hardy 1896 – 1985.
The aquatic ape hypothesis, which argues that our species evolved in water, was suggested by him.
William Harvey 1578 to 1657.
For the first time, he clarified blood pumping, explaining that it is a complete circuit that starts and finishes in the heart.
George de Hevesy 1885 – 1966.
Discovered how plants and animals use various chemical elements after they are drawn in as foods, using isotopes as tracers to study chemical and biological processes. Hafnium, atomic number 72, was discovered.
Maurice Hilleman 1919 – 2005.
The most prolific vaccine inventor in history; he created over forty vaccines and patented eight of the fourteen vaccines currently used in routine vaccination schedules; his vaccines may save up to eight million lives per year.
Hippocrates 460 BC – c. 370 BC.
The father of Western medicine: he systematised medical practises, detaching them from religion and superstitions; he trained physicians; and he wrote a vast number of medical manuals. The iconic Hippocratic Oath binds doctors to uphold high ethical standards.
Robert Hooke 1635 – 1703.
Cells were discovered, and he published Micrographia, one of the most influential books in scientific literature, showing the microscopic universe for the first time.
Jack Horner Born 1946.
Dinosaurs cared for their young and others nested in colonies, according to popular science. To hatch a modern-day dinosaur, scientists are working on reactivating latent dinosaur DNA.
Irene Joliot-Curie 1897 – 1956.
Co-discovering how to transform stable chemical elements into ‘designer’ radioactive elements has saved millions of lives and is used in tens of millions of surgical procedures per year.
Frances Kelsey 1914 – 2015.
Thousands of infants died or were born malformed as a result of their mothers taking the opioid thalidomide during birth in the early 1960s. Since Frances Kelsey blocked American imports, few ‘thalidomide babies’ were delivered in the United States.
Karl Landsteiner 1868 – 1943.
The human blood group mechanism was discovered, opening the way for healthy blood transfusions; the Rh component in blood was discovered; polio was shown to be an infectious disease caused by a virus; and haptens were discovered.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 1632 – 1723.
He was the pioneer of microbiology, and he discovered single-celled animals and plants, bacteria, and spermatozoa using remarkable self-made lenses.
Carolus Linnaeus 1707 – 1778.
In the two-part naming scheme we use to describe all lifeforms, we organised our understanding of the natural world; identified and categorised some 13,000 lifeforms; and broke with convention by classifying humans in the same way as other lifeforms.
Barbara McClintock 1902 – 1992.
Groundbreaking genetics: discovered chromosomal fusion, which raises genetic diversity between species; proved that genes switch physical characteristics of an organism on or off; transposition – the ability for genes to travel about within chromosomes – was discovered.
Gregor Mendel 1822 – 1884.
Founded the field of genetics; established many of the laws of heredity; and discovered recessive and dominant traits, as well as the mathematically predictable transmission of traits from parents to offspring.
Franz Mesmer 1734 – 1815.
Mesmer was misguided in believing he had uncovered a strange new phenomenon known as animal magnetism. He used it to help those suffering from psychosomatic disorders. The therapy succeeded by using the influence of persuasion, which was later known as a true hypnosis phenomenon (or mesmerism).
Charles Nicolle 1866 – 1936.
It was discovered that typhus is spread by lice, and it was shown how epidemics can be avoided. Invisible infections were discovered.
Florence Nightingale 1820 – 1910.
Between 1871 and 1935, a health activist who turned nursing into a valued, highly educated discipline, used statistics to measure broader health outcomes, and promoted sanitary improvements that are widely credited with contributing 20 years to life expectancy.
Louis Pasteur 1822 – 1895.
The father of modern microbiology; his discovery of mirror-image molecules revolutionised chemistry and biology; he discovered anaerobic bacteria; developed the germ theory of disease; and pioneered food preservation by pasteurisation.
Linus Pauling 1901 – 1994.
Quantum chemistry, molecular biology, and molecular genetics were all developed by this maverick titan of chemistry. He invented valence bond theory and electronegativity and founded the fields of quantum chemistry, molecular biology, and molecular genetics. The alpha-helix arrangement of proteins was discovered, and sickle-cell anaemia was shown to be a molecular disorder.
Wilder Penfield 1891 – 1976.
Pioneer in brain surgery who mapped the human brain, revealing which areas are most closely correlated with functions such as senses, body gestures, and voice.
Philippe Pinel 1745 – 1826.
Established scientific psychiatry; made humane improvements to the circumstances under which mentally ill patients were held; called for the understanding of mentally ill people as individuals.
Francesco Redi 1626 – 1697.
He devised and carried out the world’s first controlled experiments, demonstrating that flies breed, lay eggs, and do not spontaneously generate; he also developed modern parasitology.
Theodor Schwann 1810 – 1882.
His division of cells is the basis of modern histology; he established that the cell is the fundamental unit of all living organisms. Pepsin was discovered, and the role of microorganisms in alcohol fermentation was discovered.
Gene Shoemaker 1928 to 1997.
A pioneer in planetary impact physics, he suggested that microbial life could move between planets on rocks blasted into space by asteroid impacts.
B. F. Skinner 1904 – 1990.
The most influential psychologist of the twentieth century; pioneered the study of behaviourism; discovered the importance of positive feedback in learning; developed the first quantitatively repeatable psychological tests.
Nettie Stevens 1861 – 1912.
The XY sex-determination scheme, which discovered that an organism’s sex is determined by its chromosomes, was the first time a correlation was shown between a physical trait and chromosome variations.
Susumu Tonegawa Born 1939.
The immune system develops millions of distinct antibodies to fight virtually every microbe, according to research. He solved the enthralling long-term mystery of antibody diversity in the process.
Youyou Tu Born 1930.
Artemisinin, a malaria antidote, was discovered by harvesting it from sweet wormwood, a herb that has been used in Chinese fever therapies for over 2,000 years. Millions of people’s lives have been spared or changed due to artemisinin and its derivatives.
Harold Urey 1893 – 1981.
Deuterium was discovered, and isotope ratios in rocks were used to expose past Earth climates. The Miller-Urey experiment proved that electrically sparking basic gases releases amino acids, which are the building blocks of life.
Craig Venter Born 1946.
He was the first to read a free-living organism’s whole genome; he was instrumental in mapping the human genome; he found more genes than had ever been documented; and he developed synthetic DNA and new bacteria organisms.
Andreas Vesalius 1514 – 1564.
Founded modern anatomy, eradicating over a thousand-year-old myths about the human body.
Rudolf Virchow 1821 – 1902.
Virchow, the father of anatomy and social medicine, accurately described illness as the result of malfunctioning cells. He was the first to catalogue and label diseases like embolism, thrombosis, chordoma, and ochronosis, as well as to name leukaemia.
George Wald 1906 – 1997.
Since finding the vitamin A chemical cycle that helps our eyes to record light, he explained the chemistry of the retina. The chemistry of colour vision and colour blindness was created.
Selman Waksman 1888 – 1973.
Discovered antibiotics produced by soil bacteria, including streptomycin, the first useful tuberculosis treatment; coined the term antibiotic.
Alfred R. Wallace 1823 – 1913.
He was one of the first biologists to show alarm about the impact of human activities on the natural environment, having independently proposed the principle of evolution through natural selection.
Maurice Wilkins 1916 – 2004.
Initiated the experimental study into DNA that led to Watson and Crick’s discovery of its structure in 1953; crystallised DNA and obtained the highest quality X-ray images of DNA available at the time, showing that DNA molecules were helix shaped.
Sergei Winogradsky 1856 – 1953.
Invented microbial ecology; discovered chemosynthetic life forms that get their energy from chemical reactions rather than sunlight; discovered nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil that supply nitrates to green plants.
Carl Woese 1916 – 2004.
Discovered the Archaea, a third fundamental mode of life; redrew the tree of life; and revolutionised genetics by using genetic analysis to incorporate all aspects of life in the study of evolution.