What is Brain?



The brain is an outstanding three-pound organ that controls all features of the body, translates data from the out of doors world, and embodies the essence of the thoughts and soul. Intelligence, creativity, emotion, and reminiscence are many of the many stuff ruled via way of means of the mind. Protected in the skull, the mind consists of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The mind gets data via our 5 senses: sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing – frequently many at one time. It assembles the messages in a manner that has which means for us, and may keep that data in our reminiscence. The mind controls our thoughts, reminiscence and speech, motion of the fingers and legs, and the characteristic of many organs inside our body. The valuable anxious system (CNS) consists of the mind and spinal twine. The peripheral anxious system (PNS) consists of spinal nerves that department from the spinal twine and cranial nerves that department from the brain.


Cerebrum is the biggest a part of the mind and consists of proper and left hemispheres. It plays better capabilities like deciphering touch, imaginative and prescient and hearing, in addition to speech, reasoning, emotions, learning, and best manage of movement.


Cerebellum is positioned beneathneath the cerebrum. Its characteristic is to coordinate muscle movements, preserve posture, and balance.


Goes about as a transfer community interfacing the frontal cortex and cerebellum to the spinal rope. It performs many robotized capacities along the edge of breathing, coronary pulse, internal heat level, wake and rest cycles, processing, sniffling, hacking, retching, and gulping.

• Right brain – Left brain

Right brain – Left brain

The cerebrum is split into halves: the proper and left hemispheres. They are joined with the aid of using a package of fibers referred to as the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one aspect to the different. Each hemisphere controls the other aspect of the frame. If a stroke takes place at the proper aspect of the mind, your left arm or leg can be susceptible or paralyzed. Not all capabilities of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The proper hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in approximately 92% of humans.

• Lobes of the brain

Lobes of the brain

 The cerebral hemispheres have wonderful fissures, which divide the mind into lobes. Each hemisphere has four lobes: frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital. Each lobe can be divided, as soon as again, into regions that serve very unique capabilities. It’s critical to recognize that every lobe of the mind does now no longer feature alone. There are very complicated relationships among the lobes of the mind and among the proper and left hemispheres.

1. Frontal lobe

• Personality, behavior, emotions

• Judgment, planning, trouble solving

• Speech: speakme and writing (Broca’s vicinity)

• Body movement (motor strip)

• Intelligence, concentration, self awareness

2. Parietal lobe

• Interprets language, words

• Sense of touch, ache, temperature (sensory strip)

• Interprets alerts from vision, hearing, motor, sensory and reminiscence

• Spatial and visible perception

3. Occipital lobe

• Interprets vision (colour, light, movement)

4. Temporal lobe

• Understanding language (Wernicke’s vicinity)

• Memory

• Hearing

• Sequencing and organization



 In general, the left hemisphere of the mind is accountable for language and speech and is referred to as the “dominant” hemisphere. The proper hemisphere performs a massive element in decoding visible records and spatial processing. In approximately one 0.33 of those who are left-surpassed, speech feature can be placed at the proper aspect of the mind. Left-surpassed humans can also additionally want unique trying out to decide if their speech middle is at the left or proper aspect previous to any surgical operation in that vicinity. Aphasia is a disturbance of language affecting speech production, comprehension, analyzing or writing, because of mind injury – maximum generally from stroke or trauma. The kind of aphasia relies upon at the mind vicinity damaged.

Broca’s vicinity: lies withinside the left frontal lobe. If this vicinity is damaged, one can also additionally have problem transferring the tongue or facial muscular tissues to supply the sounds of speech. The man or woman can nevertheless study and recognize spoken language however has problem in speakme and writing (i.e. forming letters and words, would not write inside lines) – referred to as Broca’s aphasia.

Wernicke’s vicinity: lies withinside the left temporal lobe. Damage to this vicinity reasons Wernicke’s aphasia. The person can also additionally talk in lengthy sentences that don’t have any meaning, upload pointless words, or even create new words. They could make speech sounds, but they’ve problem information speech and are consequently blind to their mistakes.

 • Cortex

The floor of the cerebrum is referred to as the cortex. It has a folded look with hills and valleys. The cortex includes sixteen billion neurons (the cerebellum has 70 billion = 86 billion total) which might be organized in unique layers. The nerve mobileular our bodies colour the cortex grey-brown giving it its name – grey remember. Beneath the cortex are lengthy nerve fibers (axons) that join mind regions to every different — referred to as white remember. The folding of the cortex will increase the mind’s floor vicinity permitting extra neurons to in shape in the cranium and allowing better capabilities. Each fold is referred to as a gyrus, and every groove among folds is referred to as a sulcus. There are names for the folds and grooves that assist outline unique brain regions.

• Deep systems

Pathways referred to as white remember tracts join regions of the cortex to every different. Messages can tour from one gyrus to another, from one lobe to another, from one aspect of the mind to the different, and to systems deep withinside the mind. Hypothalamus: is placed withinside the ground of the 0.33 ventricle and is the grasp manipulate of the autonomic gadget. It performs a position in controlling behaviors which includes hunger, thirst, sleep, and sexual response. It additionally regulates frame temperature, blood pressure, emotions, and secretion of hormones. Pituitary gland: lies in a small pocket of bone on the cranium base referred to as the sella turcica. The pituitary gland is hooked up to the hypothalamus of the brain with the aid of using the pituitary stalk. Known as the “grasp gland,” it controls different endocrine glands withinside the frame. It secretes hormones that manipulate sexual development, sell bone and muscle growth, and reply to stress. Pineal gland: is placed at the back of the 0.33 ventricle. It enables modify the frame’s inner clock and circadian rhythms with the aid of using secreting melatonin. It has a few position in sexual development. Thalamus: serves as a relay station for nearly all records that comes and is going to the cortex. It performs a position in ache sensation, interest, alertness and reminiscence. Basal ganglia: includes the caudate, putamen and globus pallidus. These nuclei paintings with the cerebellum to coordinate nice motions, which includes fingertip movements. Limbic gadget: is the middle of our emotions, learning, and reminiscence. Included on this gadget are the cingulate gyri, hypothalamus, amygdala (emotional reactions) and hippocampus (reminiscence).

• Memory


 Memory is a complicated system that consists of 3 phases: encoding (identifying what records is critical), storing, and recalling. Different regions of the mind are concerned in distinctive sorts of reminiscence. Your brain has to pay interest and rehearse so as for an occasion to transport from short-time period to lengthy-time period reminiscence – referred to as encoding. • Short-time period reminiscence, additionally referred to as running reminiscence, takes place withinside the prefrontal cortex. It shops records for approximately one minute and its capability


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