Biomolecules are well known organic molecules. It maintains the process of metabolism of living organisms. Non-living molecules are also part of battle of sustenance of life. Small molecules such as primary and secondary metabolites and hormones are large molecules like protein, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids etc Now we will discuss the four major classes of Biomolecules. Carbohydrate, Protiens, Nucleic acids, and Lipids.
We can define Carbohydrates camically as polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones or compounds which produce it on hydrolysis. In layman’s terms, we know that Carbohydrates as sugar s or substance that test is sweet. They are collectively called as saccharides (Greek:) sakcharon = sugar)
Proteins is also class of biomolecules. Which make up around 15% of the dry weight of cellular. Proteins are known as polymers of amino acids arranged in the form of polypeptide chains. The structure of protein is classified as primary, secondary, tertiary and in some cases quaternary also. These structure of proteins are based on the level of complexity of the folding of chain of polypeptide. Protein performe both structure and dynamic roles
Nucleic acids Carries all the hereditary information from parents to offspring. There is two types of nucleic acid called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). The main function of nucleic acid is transfer genetics information and synthesis of protein. This process known as translation and transcription. The monomeric of nucleic acid is well known as nucleotide and it is made up of nitrogenous base, pentose suger, and phosphate. The nucleotide are linked between 3rd and 5th phosphodiester bond. Nitrogen base is attached with the pentose sugar to make the nucleotide distinct. There are four major nitrogenous bases can found in DNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and the last is thymine. In RNA there is uracil instead of thymine. The DNA structure can also described as a double-helix or double-helical
Lipids are insoluble in water, but soluble in organic solvent because it is organic substance. Lipids are related to fatty acids also present in living cell. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fate-soluble vitamins, mono, di, and triglyceride etc. Lipids performs a great role in the cellular structure and are the cheif source of energy. Unlike carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acid, and lipids are not polymeric molecules