Animal and Plant Cell and Its Parts

Animal and Plant Cell and Its Parts


A cell is the smallest building unit of life in any living body. There are more than a trillion cells in all living things. Cells are composed of structural organelles, which make sure that all the mechanisms work properly and cell keeps functional. A cell’s job is to assemble and support the organism, increase its growth, ensure movement, produce energy and help in reproduction.

Animal Cell

animal cell diagram

Animal cells can be found in all varying shapes and sizes ranging between millimeters to micrometers. They are usually smaller than plant cells. These cells lack a cell wall, that is why they are deprived of any specific shape. Animal cells are called to be eukaryotic, which implies that their nucleus is bounded by a thin membrane.

Plant Cell

plant cell golgi body

Plant cells differ from other cells due to the presence of chloroplast, cell wall and central vacuole. This cell is rigid and is larger in size than an animal cell. These cells produce their own food through the process of photosynthesis.

Parts of Animal and Plant Cell

An animal or a plant cell is mainly composed of 14 main parts namely cell membrane, nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear membrane, cytoskeleton, centrioles, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, ribosomes, mitochondria, vacuoles, and Golgi apparatus. Each part is responsible for performing its own individual function.

Cell membrane

The outer most layer of the cell is called the cell membrane; its main function is to form a boundary between the interior organelles of the cell and the outer extracellular matrix. This membrane is partially permeable which means it allows only specific molecules to pass through it. It is composed of lipids and proteins.


All the genetic materials of the cell are enclosed in the nucleus. It is responsible for making proteins and is responsible for controlling all the activities of the cell. The nucleus also ensures the growth and division of the cell.


This is a small point (area) in the nucleus where ribosomes are formed.

Nuclear membrane

This membrane is responsible for forming a boundary around the nucleus. It is porous thus it acts as the entrance and exit passage for RNA and proteins.


The strength and shape of the cell are dependent on this part. The Cytoskeleton permits the organelles of the cell to stay intact in place. Another vital role is played in the movement of cell.


These are a collection of microtubules which aid in the process of cell division during mitosis.


The cell is filled with an aqueous gel type liquid, which combined with the internal organelles is referred to as cytoplasm. It also contains, proteins, iron, small molecules, enzymes, salt and water.

Endoplasmic reticulum

The proteins manufactured by Ribosomes are produced, processed and moved with the aid of a network of flattened sacs called endoplasmic reticulum. This movement can be within the cell or out of the cell. Smooth and Rough Endoplasmic reticulum are the two different kinds. The smooth one helps in storing, producing lipids and eliminating toxic substances. While the rough one has ribosomes fixed to its sac.


Vesicles play an important role in the transport system of the cell. There are certain vesicles which are take part in cellular metabolism.


Ribosomes are responsible for producing the proteins in the cell; hence they are the manufacturing department in a cell. They are tiny oval structures.


The energy generating department of the cell is Mitochondria. Cellular Respiration takes place here in which a few chemical reactions take place to break down the sugar and fats.


The gas and fluids in a cell are stored in single membrane pockets called vacuoles.

Golgi apparatus

Also known as the Golgi body, is present to gather proteins from the Endoplasmic Reticulum and then bind, categorize and pack them into vesicles. Proteins are delivered to their final destination through Golgi bodies.


Different enzymes are formed in this part of the cell, hence making it the digestive system of the cell. These enzymes are responsible for breaking down the food items and do the recycling job as well.

Additional Components of Plant Cell

Cell Wall

This wall is only present in plant cells, It is the sturdy, outer most layer of the plant cell, which makes the cell stiff and gives mechanical support. It is responsible for protecting the cell. The cell wall is not present in animal cells.


The process of photosynthesis takes place here. In this process, direct sunlight is trapped and transformed into sugar. The sugar is food to the plant; hence they provide energy to the plant.

Central Vacuole

Plant Cells posses a large vacuole in the center. It can be found on the cytoplasmic layer of the cell. It contains, ions, molecules and fluids. They may acquire 30% to 90% of the cell’s entire internal space and volume. Its main job is to maintain the turgor pressure of the cell, which prevents the cell or the plant from wilting. Secondly, they are responsible for storing salts, sugar, pigments, proteins, and lipids in the cell.


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